There is now great interest in food protein hydrolysates and food-derived peptides, because they may provide numerous health benefits. Among other foodstuffs, microalgae appear to be sustainable sources of proteins and bioactive peptides that can be exploited in foods and functional formulations. This review considers protein hydrolysates and individual peptides that may be relevant in cardiovascular disease prevention because they mimic the functions of mediators involved in pathologic processes that represent relevant risk factors for cardiovascular disease development, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, and oxidative status. Some of these peptides are also multifunctional (i.e., they offer more than one benefit). Moreover, the most efficient techniques for protein extraction and hydrolyzation are commented on, as well as the best methodologies for high-throughput detection and quantification. Finally, current challenges and critical issues are discussed.
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