The Timed Up and Go test (TUG) is used to assess individual mobility. It evaluates static and dynamic balance by means of the total time required to complete the test, usually measured by a stopwatch. In recent years tools based on portable inertial measurement units (IMU) for clinical application are increasingly available on the market. More specifically, a tool (hardware and dedicated software) to quantify the TUG test based on IMU is now available. However, it has not yet been validated i...
Introduction: Istradefylline (ISD) is a new drug developed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is an adenosine receptor A(2A) antagonists that will represent an important option for patients with advanced PD where it has been demonstrated efficacy in decreasing daily OFF time and is well tolerated. ISD has been marketed in Japan since May 2013. Areas covered: The objective of this review is to summarize evidences emerged from clinical studies that have demonstrated the efficacy ...
BackgroundDespite its negative impact on quality of life, fatigue in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains an under-recognized issue and the underlying pathology is undetermined.ObjectiveTo contribute at understanding the pathogenesis of fatigue in a naturalistic cohort of cognitively intact PD patients.MethodsIn a Caucasian population of PD patients (n=27), we evaluated to what extent fatigue (quantified as PFS-16 score) is associated with PD duration and with autonomic dysfunction, studied by bo...
Catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors are currently used as first-line add-on therapy to levodopa for the treatment of end-of-dose motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease patients, as they increase levodopa bioavailability. Several factors hamper the use of current available catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, that is, the moderate efficacy and multiple dosing for entacapone and the risk of liver toxicity with tolcapone. Opicapone, a new long-acting, peripherally selective, once-da...
Levodopa may affect cortical excitability in Parkinson's disease patients with cognitive deficits as revealed by reduced activity of cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic rhythms
We hypothesized that dopamine neuromodulation might affect cortical excitability in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients set in quiet wakefulness, as revealed by resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms at alpha frequencies (8-12 Hz). Clinical and rsEEG rhythms in PD with dementia (N = 35), PD with mild cognitive impairment (N = 50), PD with normal cognition (N = 35), and normal (N = 50) older adults were available from an international archive. Cortical rsEEG sources we...
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