Bergamot belongs to the Rutaceae family and is a typical fruit grown principally in the province of Reggio Calabria (South Italy). Nowadays, its industrial use is mostly related to the extraction of the essential oil contained in the flavedo but also to a lesser extent the extraction of the juice (from the pulp), which is rich in antioxidants. However, the pressed pulp (known as Pastazzo) is either used for animal feed or is discarded. The aim of this research was to study the effect of bergamot Pastazzo flour in shortbread biscuits. Pastazzo flour partially replaced the 00 wheat flour in different percentages (2.5%, 5%, 10% and 15%). Simultaneously, a sample without the addition of Pastazzo flour (control) was analyzed, thus obtaining five biscuit samples. Cooking was done in a ventilated oven at 180 ◦C. The baking time was different for the control and the enriched samples depending on when the desired color was reached. The control took 12 min, while the enriched samples reached the desired color in 8 min. All samples were subjected to physicochemical and antioxidant characterization, as well as total polyphenols and flavonoids. The use of Pastazzo flour resulted in a slight increase in water activity and humidity values. pH values decreased for all the enriched samples compared to the control, but this was more relevant for the samples enriched with 10 and 15% of flour from by-products. Hardness varied from 1823 g (Control) to 2022 and 2818 g (respectively, for 2.5% and 15% bergamot Pastazzo flour in the recipe). Total phenol content varied from 0.14 mg GAE g−1 (Control) to 0.60 and 3.64 mg GAE g−1 (respectively, for 2.5% and 15% bergamot Pastazzo flour in the recipe). The obtained results demonstrated that the use of Pastazzo flour had a positive influence on the antioxidant content, with values which increased as more Pastazzo flour was added.

Formulation of biscuits fortified with a flour obtained from bergamot by-products (Citrus bergamia, Risso)

Alessandra De Bruno;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Bergamot belongs to the Rutaceae family and is a typical fruit grown principally in the province of Reggio Calabria (South Italy). Nowadays, its industrial use is mostly related to the extraction of the essential oil contained in the flavedo but also to a lesser extent the extraction of the juice (from the pulp), which is rich in antioxidants. However, the pressed pulp (known as Pastazzo) is either used for animal feed or is discarded. The aim of this research was to study the effect of bergamot Pastazzo flour in shortbread biscuits. Pastazzo flour partially replaced the 00 wheat flour in different percentages (2.5%, 5%, 10% and 15%). Simultaneously, a sample without the addition of Pastazzo flour (control) was analyzed, thus obtaining five biscuit samples. Cooking was done in a ventilated oven at 180 ◦C. The baking time was different for the control and the enriched samples depending on when the desired color was reached. The control took 12 min, while the enriched samples reached the desired color in 8 min. All samples were subjected to physicochemical and antioxidant characterization, as well as total polyphenols and flavonoids. The use of Pastazzo flour resulted in a slight increase in water activity and humidity values. pH values decreased for all the enriched samples compared to the control, but this was more relevant for the samples enriched with 10 and 15% of flour from by-products. Hardness varied from 1823 g (Control) to 2022 and 2818 g (respectively, for 2.5% and 15% bergamot Pastazzo flour in the recipe). Total phenol content varied from 0.14 mg GAE g−1 (Control) to 0.60 and 3.64 mg GAE g−1 (respectively, for 2.5% and 15% bergamot Pastazzo flour in the recipe). The obtained results demonstrated that the use of Pastazzo flour had a positive influence on the antioxidant content, with values which increased as more Pastazzo flour was added.
2022
Bergamot by-product flour
Antioxidants
Biscuits
Functional food
Phenolic compounds
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12078/18404
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