Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) may severely impact both short- and long-term outcomes of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) in terms of graft and patient survival. However, PTDM often goes undiagnosed, is underestimated or poorly managed. A diagnosis of PTDM should be delayed until the patient is on stable maintenance doses of immunosuppressive drugs, with stable kidney graft function and in the absence of acute infections. Risk factors for PTDM should be assessed during the pre-transplant evaluation period, in order to reduce the likelihood of developing diabetes. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is considered as the gold standard for diagnosing PTDM, whereas HbA1c is not reliable during the first months after transplantation. Glycaemic targets should be individualised, and comorbidities such as dyslipidaemia and hypertension should be treated with drugs that have the least possible impact on glucose metabolism, at doses that do not interact with immunosuppressants. While insulin is the preferred agent for treating inpatient hyperglycaemia in the immediate post-transplantation period, little evidence is available to guide therapeutic choices in the management of PTDM. Metformin and incretins may offer some advantage over other glucose lowering agents, particularly with respect to risk of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Tailoring immunosuppressive regimens may be of help, although maintenance of good kidney function should be prioritized over prevention/treatment of PTDM. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the available evidence on management and prevention of PTDM, with a focus on the available therapeutic options.

Post-transplantation Diabetes in Kidney Transplant Recipients: an Update on Management and Prevention

Conte C;
2018-01-01

Abstract

Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) may severely impact both short- and long-term outcomes of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) in terms of graft and patient survival. However, PTDM often goes undiagnosed, is underestimated or poorly managed. A diagnosis of PTDM should be delayed until the patient is on stable maintenance doses of immunosuppressive drugs, with stable kidney graft function and in the absence of acute infections. Risk factors for PTDM should be assessed during the pre-transplant evaluation period, in order to reduce the likelihood of developing diabetes. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is considered as the gold standard for diagnosing PTDM, whereas HbA1c is not reliable during the first months after transplantation. Glycaemic targets should be individualised, and comorbidities such as dyslipidaemia and hypertension should be treated with drugs that have the least possible impact on glucose metabolism, at doses that do not interact with immunosuppressants. While insulin is the preferred agent for treating inpatient hyperglycaemia in the immediate post-transplantation period, little evidence is available to guide therapeutic choices in the management of PTDM. Metformin and incretins may offer some advantage over other glucose lowering agents, particularly with respect to risk of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Tailoring immunosuppressive regimens may be of help, although maintenance of good kidney function should be prioritized over prevention/treatment of PTDM. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the available evidence on management and prevention of PTDM, with a focus on the available therapeutic options.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12078/6014
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