Diabetes mellitus is one of the major risk factors for cognitive dysfunction. The pathogenesis of brain impairment caused by chronic hyperglycemia is complex and includes mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, neurotransmitters’ alteration, and vascular disease, which lead to cognitive impairment, neurodegeneration, loss of synaptic plasticity, brain aging, and dementia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gut released hormone, is attracting attention as a possible link between metabolic and brain impairment. Several studies have shown the influence of GPL-1 on neuronal functions such as thermogenesis, blood pressure control, neurogenesis, neurodegeneration, retinal repair, and energy homeostasis. Moreover, modulation of GLP-1 activity can influence amyloid β peptide aggregation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dopamine (DA) levels in Parkinson’s disease (PD). GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) showed beneficial actions on brain ischemia in animal models, such as the reduction of cerebral infarct area and the improvement of neurological deficit, acting mainly through inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. They might also exert a beneficial effect on the cognitive impairment induced by diabetes or obesity improving learning and memory by modulating synaptic plasticity. Moreover, GLP-1RAs reduced hippocampal neurodegeneration. Besides this, there are growing evidences on neuroprotective effects of these agonists in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, regardless of diabetes. In PD animal models, GPL-1RAs were able to protect motor activity and dopaminergic neurons whereas in AD models, they seemed to improve nearly all neuropathological features and cognitive functions. Although further clinical studies of GPL-1RAs in humans are needed, they seem to be a promising therapy for diabetes-associated cognitive decline.

Glucagon-like peptide-1: a focus on neurodegenerative diseases

Filardi T.
2019-01-01

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is one of the major risk factors for cognitive dysfunction. The pathogenesis of brain impairment caused by chronic hyperglycemia is complex and includes mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, neurotransmitters’ alteration, and vascular disease, which lead to cognitive impairment, neurodegeneration, loss of synaptic plasticity, brain aging, and dementia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gut released hormone, is attracting attention as a possible link between metabolic and brain impairment. Several studies have shown the influence of GPL-1 on neuronal functions such as thermogenesis, blood pressure control, neurogenesis, neurodegeneration, retinal repair, and energy homeostasis. Moreover, modulation of GLP-1 activity can influence amyloid β peptide aggregation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dopamine (DA) levels in Parkinson’s disease (PD). GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) showed beneficial actions on brain ischemia in animal models, such as the reduction of cerebral infarct area and the improvement of neurological deficit, acting mainly through inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. They might also exert a beneficial effect on the cognitive impairment induced by diabetes or obesity improving learning and memory by modulating synaptic plasticity. Moreover, GLP-1RAs reduced hippocampal neurodegeneration. Besides this, there are growing evidences on neuroprotective effects of these agonists in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, regardless of diabetes. In PD animal models, GPL-1RAs were able to protect motor activity and dopaminergic neurons whereas in AD models, they seemed to improve nearly all neuropathological features and cognitive functions. Although further clinical studies of GPL-1RAs in humans are needed, they seem to be a promising therapy for diabetes-associated cognitive decline.
2019
alzheimer’s disease
GLP-1 receptor agonists
glucagon-like peptide-1
neurodegenerative diseases
parkinson’s disease
type 2 diabetes
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12078/19686
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