Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance that develops in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. GDM can lead to short-term and long-term complications both in the mother and in the offspring. Diagnosing and treating this condition is therefore of great importance to avoid poor pregnancy outcomes. There is increasing interest in finding new markers with potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic utility in GDM. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs, are critically involved in metabolic processes and their dysregulated expression has been reported in several pathological contexts. The aberrant expression of several circulating or placenta-related ncRNAs has been linked to insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, the key pathophysiological features of GDM. Furthermore, significant associations between altered ncRNA profiles and GDM-related complications, such as macrosomia or trophoblast dysfunction, have been observed. Remarkably, the deregulation of ncRNAs, which might be linked to a detrimental intrauterine environment, can lead to changes in the expression of target genes in the offspring, possibly contributing to the development of long-term GDM-related complications, such as metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, all the recent findings on ncRNAs and GDM are summarized, particularly focusing on the molecular aspects and the pathophysiological implications of this complex relationship.

Non-Coding RNA: Role in Gestational Diabetes Pathophysiology and Complications

Filardi, Tiziana;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance that develops in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. GDM can lead to short-term and long-term complications both in the mother and in the offspring. Diagnosing and treating this condition is therefore of great importance to avoid poor pregnancy outcomes. There is increasing interest in finding new markers with potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic utility in GDM. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs, are critically involved in metabolic processes and their dysregulated expression has been reported in several pathological contexts. The aberrant expression of several circulating or placenta-related ncRNAs has been linked to insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, the key pathophysiological features of GDM. Furthermore, significant associations between altered ncRNA profiles and GDM-related complications, such as macrosomia or trophoblast dysfunction, have been observed. Remarkably, the deregulation of ncRNAs, which might be linked to a detrimental intrauterine environment, can lead to changes in the expression of target genes in the offspring, possibly contributing to the development of long-term GDM-related complications, such as metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, all the recent findings on ncRNAs and GDM are summarized, particularly focusing on the molecular aspects and the pathophysiological implications of this complex relationship.
2020
GDM
GDM pathophysiology
circular RNA
epigenetics
gestational diabetes mellitus
long non-coding RNA
microRNA
non-coding RNA
placenta
pregnancy complications
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12078/19673
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