Bowel inflammation, impaired intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB), and gut dysbiosis could represent early events in Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study examined, in a descriptive manner, the correlation among enteric α-synuclein, bowel inflammation, impairments of IEB and alterations of enteric bacteria in a transgenic (Tg) model of PD before brain pathology. Human A53T α-synuclein Tg mice were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 9 months of age to evaluate concomitance of enteric inflammation, IEB impairments, and enteric bacterial metabolite alterations during the early phases of α-synucleinopathy. The molecular mechanisms underlying the interplay between α-synuclein, activation of immune/inflammatory responses and IEB alterations were investigated with in vitro experiments in cell cultures. Tg mice displayed an increase in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF, caspase-1 activity and enteric glia activation since 3 months of age. Colonic TLR-2 and zonulin-1 expression were altered in Tg mice as compared with controls. Lipopolysaccharide levels were increased in Tg animals at 3 months, while fecal butyrate and propionate levels were decreased. Co-treatment with lipopolysaccharide and α-synuclein promoted IL-1β release in the supernatant of THP-1 cells. When applied to Caco-2 cells, the THP-1-derived supernatant decreased zonulin-1 and occludin expression. Such an effect was abrogated when THP-1 cells were incubated with YVAD (caspase-1 inhibitor) or when Caco-2 were incubated with anakinra, while butyrate incubation did not prevent such decrease. Taken together, early enteric α-synuclein accumulation contributes to compromise IEB through the direct activation of canonical caspase-1-dependent inflammasome signaling. These changes could contribute both to bowel symptoms as well as central pathology.

Enteric α-synuclein impairs intestinal epithelial barrier through caspase-1-inflammasome signaling in Parkinson's disease before brain pathology

Emanuela Colla;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Bowel inflammation, impaired intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB), and gut dysbiosis could represent early events in Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study examined, in a descriptive manner, the correlation among enteric α-synuclein, bowel inflammation, impairments of IEB and alterations of enteric bacteria in a transgenic (Tg) model of PD before brain pathology. Human A53T α-synuclein Tg mice were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 9 months of age to evaluate concomitance of enteric inflammation, IEB impairments, and enteric bacterial metabolite alterations during the early phases of α-synucleinopathy. The molecular mechanisms underlying the interplay between α-synuclein, activation of immune/inflammatory responses and IEB alterations were investigated with in vitro experiments in cell cultures. Tg mice displayed an increase in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF, caspase-1 activity and enteric glia activation since 3 months of age. Colonic TLR-2 and zonulin-1 expression were altered in Tg mice as compared with controls. Lipopolysaccharide levels were increased in Tg animals at 3 months, while fecal butyrate and propionate levels were decreased. Co-treatment with lipopolysaccharide and α-synuclein promoted IL-1β release in the supernatant of THP-1 cells. When applied to Caco-2 cells, the THP-1-derived supernatant decreased zonulin-1 and occludin expression. Such an effect was abrogated when THP-1 cells were incubated with YVAD (caspase-1 inhibitor) or when Caco-2 were incubated with anakinra, while butyrate incubation did not prevent such decrease. Taken together, early enteric α-synuclein accumulation contributes to compromise IEB through the direct activation of canonical caspase-1-dependent inflammasome signaling. These changes could contribute both to bowel symptoms as well as central pathology.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12078/18798
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