During multiple sclerosis (MS), a close link has been demonstrated to occur between inflammation and neuro-axonal degeneration, leading to the hypothesis that immune mechanisms may promote neurodegeneration, leading to irreversible disease progression. Energy deficits and inflammation-driven mitochondrial dysfunction seem to be involved in this process. In this work we investigated, by the use of striatal electrophysiological field-potential recordings, if the inflammatory process associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is able to influence neuronal vulnerability to the blockade of mitochondrial complex IV, a crucial component for mitochondrial activity responsible of about 90% of total cellular oxygen consumption. We showed that during the acute relapsing phase of EAE, neuronal susceptibility to mitochondrial complex IV inhibition is markedly enhanced. This detrimental effect was counteracted by the pharmacological inhibition of microglia, of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and its intracellular pathway (involving soluble guanylyl cyclase, sGC, and protein kinase G, PKG). The obtained results suggest that mitochondrial complex IV exerts an important role in maintaining neuronal energetic homeostasis during EAE. The pathological processes associated with experimental MS, and in particular the activation of microglia and of the NO pathway, lead to an increased neuronal vulnerability to mitochondrial complex IV inhibition, representing promising pharmacological targets.

Microglial activation and the nitric oxide/cGMP/PKG pathway underlie enhanced neuronal vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction in experimental multiple sclerosis

de Iure, Antonio;
2018-01-01

Abstract

During multiple sclerosis (MS), a close link has been demonstrated to occur between inflammation and neuro-axonal degeneration, leading to the hypothesis that immune mechanisms may promote neurodegeneration, leading to irreversible disease progression. Energy deficits and inflammation-driven mitochondrial dysfunction seem to be involved in this process. In this work we investigated, by the use of striatal electrophysiological field-potential recordings, if the inflammatory process associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is able to influence neuronal vulnerability to the blockade of mitochondrial complex IV, a crucial component for mitochondrial activity responsible of about 90% of total cellular oxygen consumption. We showed that during the acute relapsing phase of EAE, neuronal susceptibility to mitochondrial complex IV inhibition is markedly enhanced. This detrimental effect was counteracted by the pharmacological inhibition of microglia, of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and its intracellular pathway (involving soluble guanylyl cyclase, sGC, and protein kinase G, PKG). The obtained results suggest that mitochondrial complex IV exerts an important role in maintaining neuronal energetic homeostasis during EAE. The pathological processes associated with experimental MS, and in particular the activation of microglia and of the NO pathway, lead to an increased neuronal vulnerability to mitochondrial complex IV inhibition, representing promising pharmacological targets.
2018
Microglia
Mitochondrial dysfunction
Multiple sclerosis
Neurodegeneration
Neuroprotective strategies
Nitric oxide
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12078/18403
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