This cross-sectional study analyses differences in dietary habits, taste preferences, variety of protein sources and body composition (BC) profiles among individuals following omnivorous, flexitarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and pescatarian diets. Furthermore, it assesses the correlations between these dietary patterns and various sports, classified by exercise intensity, in relation to BC parameters. The study analysed the eating habits and BC data of 1342 participants aged 18–65 years, classified into four diet groups based on their 7-day food diaries and questionnaire responses. Our analysis revealed gender- and age-related differences in weekly food consumption and protein source variety, with men generally consuming more meat, processed meat and fish than women, especially in younger age groups. Differences in dairy and soy consumption were also noted between age groups, while legume and soy preferences showed no gender disparity across all ages. Among non-sporting individuals, vegetarians exhibited lower fat mass (FM%) compared to other diets, while among athletes, vegetarians and pescatarians in in endurance and strength sports, respectively, displayed lower FM%, with flexitarians and omnivores in endurance sports showing higher FM%. Non-athletic omnivores and vegetarians demonstrated a greater proportion of body protein, while among athletes, those engaged in strength training exhibited a higher body protein content across all dietary groups compared to those in endurance training. Among non-athletic groups, vegetarians exhibited the lowest FM/FFM (fat mass/fat-free mass) ratio, while among athletes, vegetarians in endurance sports and participants in strength training across other diets showed lower FM/FFM ratios. The results emphasise the complex interaction between diet, BC and lifestyle choices, revealing how different combinations of diet and sport are associated with optimised BC.

Effects of Different Nutritional Patterns and Physical Activity on Body Composition: A Gender and Age Group Comparative Study

Lombardo, Mauro
;
Feraco, Alessandra;Camajani, Elisabetta;Gorini, Stefania;Strollo, Rocky;Armani, Andrea;Padua, Elvira;Caprio, Massimiliano
2024-01-01

Abstract

This cross-sectional study analyses differences in dietary habits, taste preferences, variety of protein sources and body composition (BC) profiles among individuals following omnivorous, flexitarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and pescatarian diets. Furthermore, it assesses the correlations between these dietary patterns and various sports, classified by exercise intensity, in relation to BC parameters. The study analysed the eating habits and BC data of 1342 participants aged 18–65 years, classified into four diet groups based on their 7-day food diaries and questionnaire responses. Our analysis revealed gender- and age-related differences in weekly food consumption and protein source variety, with men generally consuming more meat, processed meat and fish than women, especially in younger age groups. Differences in dairy and soy consumption were also noted between age groups, while legume and soy preferences showed no gender disparity across all ages. Among non-sporting individuals, vegetarians exhibited lower fat mass (FM%) compared to other diets, while among athletes, vegetarians and pescatarians in in endurance and strength sports, respectively, displayed lower FM%, with flexitarians and omnivores in endurance sports showing higher FM%. Non-athletic omnivores and vegetarians demonstrated a greater proportion of body protein, while among athletes, those engaged in strength training exhibited a higher body protein content across all dietary groups compared to those in endurance training. Among non-athletic groups, vegetarians exhibited the lowest FM/FFM (fat mass/fat-free mass) ratio, while among athletes, vegetarians in endurance sports and participants in strength training across other diets showed lower FM/FFM ratios. The results emphasise the complex interaction between diet, BC and lifestyle choices, revealing how different combinations of diet and sport are associated with optimised BC.
2024
food preferences
cross-sectional studies
dietary patterns
taste
diet
vegetarian
body composition
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12078/18026
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact