Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is correlated with a variety of long-term sequelae that affect different aspects of health, including physical function. This study investigated the longitudinal changes in handgrip strength (HGS) over six months post-hospital discharge in COVID-19 patients and explores the associations between HGS, health-related quality of life, dyspnoea, exercise capacity, and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Adult COVID-19 patients were followed up at one, three, and six months after hospital discharge. HGS, BMI, exercise capacity, and health-related quality of life were assessed. Data from patients with HGS measurements at all three time points were analysed. Results: Low HGS was prevalent one month post-discharge (35%). Participants with low HGS exhibited more severe disease (30.5% vs. 5.9% were admitted to the intensive care unit, p < 0.01), longer hospital stays (median [IQR] 21 [10.0; 40.5] vs. 12.0 [8.0; 20.0] days, p < 0.01), greater weight loss (-5.7 [-9.1; -0.6] vs. -3.2 [-5.7; -0.0] kg, p = 0.004), and reduced exercise capacity (6 min walking test [6 MWT], 95.7 [84.0; 102.0] vs. 100.0 [92.9; 105.0]% predicted, p = 0.007). Those with persistently low HGS (40% of the initial low HGS group) had worse exercise capacity (6-MWT 93.3 [78.3; 101.0] vs. 101.0 [95.0; 107.0]% predicted, p < 0.001), more dyspnoea (29.0% vs. 2.0% of participants, p < 0.001), poorer quality of life (visual analogue scale score, 75 [50; 75] vs. 85 [75; 95], p < 0.001), and higher rates of problems in various health dimensions. HGS at 1 month was the only significant predictor of HGS improvement from 1 month to 6 months (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.11 [1.03; 1.20], p = 0.008). Conclusions: This study highlights the prevalence of reduced physical function among COVID-19 survivors and emphasises the importance of early identification and intervention to optimise their long-term health. Monitoring HGS, a simple and reliable tool, can provide valuable insights into patients' overall physical function, aiding in tailored care and improved outcomes.

Longitudinal Changes in Physical Function and Their Impact on Health Outcomes in COVID-19 Patients

Conte, Caterina
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is correlated with a variety of long-term sequelae that affect different aspects of health, including physical function. This study investigated the longitudinal changes in handgrip strength (HGS) over six months post-hospital discharge in COVID-19 patients and explores the associations between HGS, health-related quality of life, dyspnoea, exercise capacity, and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Adult COVID-19 patients were followed up at one, three, and six months after hospital discharge. HGS, BMI, exercise capacity, and health-related quality of life were assessed. Data from patients with HGS measurements at all three time points were analysed. Results: Low HGS was prevalent one month post-discharge (35%). Participants with low HGS exhibited more severe disease (30.5% vs. 5.9% were admitted to the intensive care unit, p < 0.01), longer hospital stays (median [IQR] 21 [10.0; 40.5] vs. 12.0 [8.0; 20.0] days, p < 0.01), greater weight loss (-5.7 [-9.1; -0.6] vs. -3.2 [-5.7; -0.0] kg, p = 0.004), and reduced exercise capacity (6 min walking test [6 MWT], 95.7 [84.0; 102.0] vs. 100.0 [92.9; 105.0]% predicted, p = 0.007). Those with persistently low HGS (40% of the initial low HGS group) had worse exercise capacity (6-MWT 93.3 [78.3; 101.0] vs. 101.0 [95.0; 107.0]% predicted, p < 0.001), more dyspnoea (29.0% vs. 2.0% of participants, p < 0.001), poorer quality of life (visual analogue scale score, 75 [50; 75] vs. 85 [75; 95], p < 0.001), and higher rates of problems in various health dimensions. HGS at 1 month was the only significant predictor of HGS improvement from 1 month to 6 months (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.11 [1.03; 1.20], p = 0.008). Conclusions: This study highlights the prevalence of reduced physical function among COVID-19 survivors and emphasises the importance of early identification and intervention to optimise their long-term health. Monitoring HGS, a simple and reliable tool, can provide valuable insights into patients' overall physical function, aiding in tailored care and improved outcomes.
2023
COVID-19
SARS-CoV-2
muscle strength
physical function
sarcopenia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12078/17227
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