Introduction: There is currently a resurgence of levodopa as the initial treatment of choice for most patients with Parkinson's disease, albeit at lower doses than previously used. The addition of adjuvant treatments (including MAO-B inhibitors, COMT inhibitors and dopamine agonists) is an established strategy to reduce motor complications that develop with sustained levodopa therapy. Areas covered: In this narrative review, the authors discuss the evidence underpinning current levodopa optimization strategies, during early disease and once motor complications occur. To support the discussion, the authors performed a broad PubMed search with the terms 'levodopa/L-dopa/L-Dopa, and Parkinson's disease,' restricted to clinical trials. There is now a wealth of evidence that improving levodopa delivery to the brain improves outcomes and we discuss how agents can be combined earlier in the course of disease to leverage the full potential of this strategy. Expert opinion: Levodopa remains the cornerstone of antiparkinsonian therapy. Several promising advances in formulation have been made and include novel extended-release oral drugs as well as non-oral delivery systems. However, evidence has long suggested that anti-parkinsonian medications may be better used in combination earlier in the disease, and consequently patients will benefit from low doses of several agents rather than ever larger levodopa doses.

Optimizing levodopa therapy, when and how? Perspectives on the importance of delivery and the potential for an early combination approach

Stocchi, Fabrizio;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Introduction: There is currently a resurgence of levodopa as the initial treatment of choice for most patients with Parkinson's disease, albeit at lower doses than previously used. The addition of adjuvant treatments (including MAO-B inhibitors, COMT inhibitors and dopamine agonists) is an established strategy to reduce motor complications that develop with sustained levodopa therapy. Areas covered: In this narrative review, the authors discuss the evidence underpinning current levodopa optimization strategies, during early disease and once motor complications occur. To support the discussion, the authors performed a broad PubMed search with the terms 'levodopa/L-dopa/L-Dopa, and Parkinson's disease,' restricted to clinical trials. There is now a wealth of evidence that improving levodopa delivery to the brain improves outcomes and we discuss how agents can be combined earlier in the course of disease to leverage the full potential of this strategy. Expert opinion: Levodopa remains the cornerstone of antiparkinsonian therapy. Several promising advances in formulation have been made and include novel extended-release oral drugs as well as non-oral delivery systems. However, evidence has long suggested that anti-parkinsonian medications may be better used in combination earlier in the disease, and consequently patients will benefit from low doses of several agents rather than ever larger levodopa doses.
2023
Adjunct therapy
COMT inhibitors
MAO-B inhibitors
delivery
dopamine agonists
levodopa
parkinson’s disease
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12078/13273
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