: Levodopa is the gold standard for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). There are well documented motor and non-motor fluctuations, however, that occur almost inevitably once levodopa is started after a variable period in people with PD. Whilst brain neurodegenerative processes play a part in the pathogenesis of these fluctuations, a range of barriers across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can alter levodopa pharmacokinetics, ultimately contributing to non-optimal levodopa response and symptoms fluctuations. GI barriers to levodopa transport and absorption include dysphagia, delayed gastric emptying, constipation, Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and gut dysbiosis. In addition, a protein-rich diet and concomitant medication intake can further alter levodopa pharmacokinetics. This can result in unpredictable or sub-optimal levodopa response, 'delayed on' or 'no on' phenomena. In this narrative review, we provided an overview on the plethora of GI obstacles to levodopa transport and absorption in PD and their implications on levodopa pharmacokinetics and development of motor fluctuations. In addition, management strategies to address GI dysfunction in PD are highlighted, including use of non-oral therapies to bypass the GI tract.

Gastrointestinal barriers to levodopa transport and absorption in Parkinson's disease

Stocchi, Fabrizio;
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Levodopa is the gold standard for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). There are well documented motor and non-motor fluctuations, however, that occur almost inevitably once levodopa is started after a variable period in people with PD. Whilst brain neurodegenerative processes play a part in the pathogenesis of these fluctuations, a range of barriers across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can alter levodopa pharmacokinetics, ultimately contributing to non-optimal levodopa response and symptoms fluctuations. GI barriers to levodopa transport and absorption include dysphagia, delayed gastric emptying, constipation, Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and gut dysbiosis. In addition, a protein-rich diet and concomitant medication intake can further alter levodopa pharmacokinetics. This can result in unpredictable or sub-optimal levodopa response, 'delayed on' or 'no on' phenomena. In this narrative review, we provided an overview on the plethora of GI obstacles to levodopa transport and absorption in PD and their implications on levodopa pharmacokinetics and development of motor fluctuations. In addition, management strategies to address GI dysfunction in PD are highlighted, including use of non-oral therapies to bypass the GI tract.
2023
Parkinson's disease
absorption
constipation
delayed gastric emptying
diet
dysphagia
levodopa
medication
microbiota
pharmacokinetics
transport
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12078/13272
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 16
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact