The adult gut microbiota contains trillions of microorganisms of thousands of differentspecies. Only one third of gut microbiota are common to most people; the rest are specific andcontribute to enhancing genetic variation. Gut microorganisms significantly affect host nutrition,metabolic function, immune system, and redox levels, and may be modulated by several environmentalconditions, including physical activity and exercise. Microbiota also act like an endocrine organ andis sensitive to the homeostatic and physiological changes associated with training; in turn, exercisehas been demonstrated to increase microbiota diversity, consequently improving the metabolic profileand immunological responses. On the other side, adaptation to exercise might be influenced bythe individual gut microbiota that regulates the energetic balance and participates to the control ofinflammatory, redox, and hydration status. Intense endurance exercise causes physiological andbiochemical demands, and requires adequate measures to counteract oxidative stress, intestinalpermeability, electrolyte imbalance, glycogen depletion, frequent upper respiratory tract infections,systemic inflammation and immune responses. Microbiota could be an important tool to improveoverall general health, performance, and energy availability while controlling inflammation andredox levels in endurance athletes. The relationship among gut microbiota, general health, trainingadaptation and performance, along with a focus on sport supplements which are known to exertsome influence on the microbiota, will be discussed.

Mutual Interactions among Exercise, Sport Supplements and Microbiota

Stocchi Vilberto
2020-01-01

Abstract

The adult gut microbiota contains trillions of microorganisms of thousands of differentspecies. Only one third of gut microbiota are common to most people; the rest are specific andcontribute to enhancing genetic variation. Gut microorganisms significantly affect host nutrition,metabolic function, immune system, and redox levels, and may be modulated by several environmentalconditions, including physical activity and exercise. Microbiota also act like an endocrine organ andis sensitive to the homeostatic and physiological changes associated with training; in turn, exercisehas been demonstrated to increase microbiota diversity, consequently improving the metabolic profileand immunological responses. On the other side, adaptation to exercise might be influenced bythe individual gut microbiota that regulates the energetic balance and participates to the control ofinflammatory, redox, and hydration status. Intense endurance exercise causes physiological andbiochemical demands, and requires adequate measures to counteract oxidative stress, intestinalpermeability, electrolyte imbalance, glycogen depletion, frequent upper respiratory tract infections,systemic inflammation and immune responses. Microbiota could be an important tool to improveoverall general health, performance, and energy availability while controlling inflammation andredox levels in endurance athletes. The relationship among gut microbiota, general health, trainingadaptation and performance, along with a focus on sport supplements which are known to exertsome influence on the microbiota, will be discussed.
2020
gut microbiota
health
performance
physical exercise
sport supplements
training adaptation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12078/12754
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